models prescribe tested steps and procedures to effectively generate
desired outcomes. In general, models can be classified along a continuum
from instructor-directed, to student-instructor negotiated, to student-directed
(see Figure below).
help you choose a model, you should know that instructor-directed
models are the norm for college campuses, and are criticized for not
actively involving students and for often failing to challenge students
to think at high levels (e.g., analysis, synthesis, evaluation). Student-directed
models require considerably more interest and effort from the students
and are criticized for consuming a lot of class time to cover smaller
amounts of information at greater depths. A greater chance exists
for higher-level thinking via student-directed models, however. Social
models provide a common ground between the two extremes. The models
listed below are classified by this three-tiered taxonomy.
Teacher Delivered, "Direct" Instruction
Audio Tutorial Approach is a mastery learning model relevant
for those working with large lecture classes or wishing to develop
independent study materials. Relevant for most fields, including linguistics,
languages, and performance arts; originally designed for sciences.
Personalized System of Instruction is a mastery learning model,
emphasizing independent study and proctored-testing. Relevant for
those instructors wishing to develop self-paced teaching resources
(e.g., web modules).
Goal-Based Scenarios, instructors develop
a motivational goal for learners that requires the application of
certain skills and competencies. Relevant for most fields.
from "Direct" to "Social"
Teaching can be used to engage students in critical thinking
and decision making about realistic problems in a discipline. Relevant
for most fields; used extensively in law, business, medicine, education,
architecture, and engineering.
Guided Design models, students work
independently on mastery learning materials (typically outside of
class), then apply this knowledge to authentic problems within class.
Relevant for instructors wishing to spend less class time on basic
course facts and concepts, opting instead for discussion and application
to more elaborate problems.
Models, Student-Teacher Negotiated
Instruction prescribes learning through realistic problems
and allows students to experience the same professional dilemmas faced
by experts in a given field. Relevant for most fields; originally
designed for mathematics.
involves instructors in outlining, then modeling expert-like processes
for students. Students apply the processes on their own, utilizing
teacher-developed scaffolds. Students discuss their reasoning processes
with other learners. Relevant for some fields (e.g., writing, mathematics).
Learning involves students in collaborative or team-based
tasks (e.g., group problem solving, paper writing, projects). Students
are responsible for their own and for their teammates' understanding.
Relevant for any discipline; valuable for promoting reasoning and
of "Social" and "Radical"
Project-Based Models suggest students learn about topics by
developing materials or completing a design task (e.g., Web pages,
videos, models). This "learning by creating" approach is
applicable to engineering, architecture, history, social sciences,
and other fields where students interpret and re-present information
in varied forms (i.e., two or three interpretations of the same event,
two or three solutions or designs for the same problem).
Models, Student-Centered, "Radical"
Learning engages student teams in advanced problem solving.
Teams are responsible for problem analysis, research, and solutions.
Instructors coach teams as needed. Relevant for most fields; used
extensively in medicine and business.
Environments support students on authentic problem-solving
tasks through extensive resources, tools, and scaffolds. Relevant
for any field with complex problems or any instructor wishing to engage
learners in critical thinking.